Application methods

Live vaccines are usually applied by mass vaccination. Inactivated vaccines usually have to be given individually to each bird.

Live vaccines

  • Oculo–nasal method – In general gives the best response but it is labour intensive and time consuming.
  • Spray vaccination – A good alternative to the oculo-nasal method.
  • Drinking water – Vaccination through the drinking water is the least reliable application method.

Inactivated vaccines

Inactivated vaccines can only be given by injection. The vaccine should be allowed to reach room temperature (15°C to 25°C) before application.

vaccinating with inactivated vaccine
Inactivated vaccines are given by individual injection to each bird.