Live vaccines are usually applied by mass vaccination. Inactivated vaccines usually have to be given individually to each bird.
- Oculo–nasal method – In general gives the best response but it is labour intensive and time consuming.
- Spray vaccination – A good alternative to the oculo-nasal method.
- Drinking water – Vaccination through the drinking water is the least reliable application method.
Inactivated vaccines can only be given by injection. The vaccine should be allowed to reach room temperature (15°C to 25°C) before application.